Region:Asia Pacific Current UN Women Plan Period Afghanisthan:2018-2022
World Bank Income Classification:Low Income The World Bank classifies economies for analytical purposes into four income groups: low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high income. For this purpose it uses gross national income (GNI) per capita data in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the World Bank Atlas method, which is applied to smooth exchange rate fluctuations. Least Developed Country:Yes Since 1971, the United Nations has recognized LDCs as a category of States that are deemed highly disadvantaged in their development process, for structural, historical and also geographical reasons. Three criteria are used: per capita income, human assets, and economic vulnerability. Gender Inequality Index:0.575 GII is a composite metric of gender inequality using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. A low GII value indicates low inequality between women and men, and vice-versa. Gender Development Index:0.723 GDI measures gender inequalities in achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: health, education, and command over economic resources.
Population:209,497,025 Source of population data: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2022). World Population Prospects: The 2022 Revision Male:19,976,265 (9.5%) Female:189,520,760 (90.5%)
Women and girls affected by the conflict access protection and economic opportunitiesWomen including women with disabilities, internally displaced persons, rural women, minorities increased access to economic opportunities, and it enabled them to provide food, medical bills and school fees for their children that subsequently reduced gender inequality gap and GBV cases. In the UN Women’s project target areas in Juba and Bentiu 112 women reported improved their access to nutritious food, through their access to climate resilient vegetable and fruit seeds. Moreover, women and girls increased their access to protection and justice. On 11 March 2021, the High Court in sitting in Bor, the capital of Jonglei State, sentenced a 40-year-old prominent businessman for raping a 16-year-old girl. The Jonglei Civil Society Network praised the decision of the High Court saying, “it sends a strong message to men who abuse women.” One of the challenges in addressing SGBV in South Sudan is the impunity of perpetrators, thus discouraging women and girls to report cases of SGBV to relevant authorities, and cases like these charts a positive precedent. This change was brought through efforts by Steward Women, supported by UN Women and partners working to mitigate SGBV.
Government of South Sudan fulfils international reporting obligations on CEDAW, Beijing Platform for Action, UNSCR 1325, Maputo Plan of Action and SDGsThe Minister and the Undersecretary of the Ministry of Gender Child and Social Welfare (MGCSW) participated in the CEDAW Treaty body 80th session on the first South Sudan Report on the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which was historic as it was the first such dialogue South Sudan had engaged in before any human rights treaty body. The process of preparing responses to the questions from the CEDAW committee, having the dialogues and recommendations from the CEDAW committee will contribute to create enabling environment for gender sensitive transitional and post conflict legislative and policy that will promote gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls in South Sudan. The CEDAW committee noted that South Sudan has been making efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the launching of the Technical Committee for the establishment of the Commission for Truth, Reconciliation and Healing constituted through Ministerial Order No. 02/2021 of 10 May 2021. The MGCSW and line ministries will be developing an action plan to address recommendations that were highlighted by the CEDAW committee, such as legal protection of women living with HIV, as well as taking forward efforts for the ratification of the convention of persons with disabilities.
Humanitarian actors promote gender responsive humanitarian/crisis response planning frameworks and programmes in South SudanMore gendered analyses and sex and age disaggregated data are available for humanitarian actors in South Sudan that created an enable environment for the humanitarian actors to highlight and address specific needs of women, girls, boys and men. At the same time with the analyses highlighting the specific needs and capacity of women and girls, which in turn informed processes of how to leverage women and girls’ strengths to influence peace, humanitarian response and resilience building. Some of the gender analyses that were conducted by UN Women in 2021 includes the gender analysis on experiences of IDP’s, returnees, refugees and host communities, and the gender analysis to inform the Common Country Analysis. The different gender analysis processes strengthened capacity of the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management (MHADM) in gender integration. A staff from the MHADM spoke of how they now see things differently. They were able to wear a gender lens to see the current humanitarian situation and needs. The analysis processes also provided a platform for practical training from the learning facilitated during the Gender in Humanitarian training conducted in 2020. The MHADM conduced and led its own gender analysis on the impact of conflict in 7 states of South Sudan through the strengthened partnership with UN Women. UN Women trained data collectors appointed by the MHADM to carry out the gender analysis. The MHADM and UN Women are working together to produce a policy brief from the findings that is to inform the Ministries work. The MHADM also provided technical oversight and support to UN Women on key data collection processes including the gender analysis on experiences of IDP’s, returnees, refugees and host communities, the barrier analysis of COVID-19 testing and vaccination. A number of processes of different cluster meetings had a gendered input from UN Women. UN Women was able to put the engendered spin on things that might have otherwise been forgotten. Some of the UN Women’s technical inputs are as follows; UN Women has been part of a number of surveys administered by the Education Cluster that was looking to improve the Education policy and the work of the Education Cluster. In addition, the UNCT joint programme on Disaster Risk Reduction highlighted gender aspects of the programme. The UNCT was able to include some of the initial findings from the gender analysis on the impacts of floods within the document such as highlighting the plight of women and girls within disasters considering their vulnerability due to pre-existing negative gender norms.
Government of South Sudan budgets for and fully implements its Women Peace and Security commitmentsSouth Sudan continued lack of budgetary allocation towards commitments for Women Peace and Security (WPS) that hinders actual implementations of WPS commitments stipulated in the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS) . It also negatively affected data collection of gaps on the commitments and implementation of the WPS Agenda for monitoring on regular basis. However, South Sudan made some progress on the implementation of the National Action Plan on United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNCSR) 1325 on WPS such as on the prevention and protection as the Joint Defence Board has developed a strategy to address sexual gender-based violence (SGBV) that includes disciplinary measure by the parties’ signatory to the agreement to their forces in case they are involved in SGBV. Although the numbers fall short of 35% affirmative action for women’s leadership positions which was enshrined in the R-ARCSS, there has been a significant increase in women representation in recognized leadership and decision-making positions in the government as well as women’s participation in peacebuilding . As of December 2021, 9 out of the 35 members of the cabinet are women, which amounts to 25.71%. Also, there is 1 woman deputy minister, and 1 out of the 5 vice presidents is a woman. Executive appointment for the state governors and deputies shows that 1 out of 10 (10%) governors is women, and 3 out of 10 (30%) deputies are women. The positions include advisers, ministers, chairpersons of independent commissions, deputy chairpersons of independent commissions, and county commissioners. For the Transitional National Legislative Assembly (TNLA), 182 females out of 550 legislators (33.09%) are appointed including a first female Speaker of the TNLA for the first time since the independence in 2011. At the state level, women from political parties and civil society were effectively engaged in championing the efforts of peacebuilding, as evidenced by the example of 15 women political leaders have been appointed to conflict resolution peace commissions at 10 states. The women are from parties that are signatories to the Peace Agreement and drive the agenda of peacebuilding at state levels. Moreover, over 260 women leaders across the country from the 10 states and 3 administrative areas were engaged in establishing the structures of 13 South Sudan Women Leadership Forums to act as government women leaders’ structures for influencing government decisions and space for amplifying women leader’s voices for claiming meaningful participation in public life. All the established 13 structures of South Sudan Women Leadership Forums are headed by Ministers of Gender and Social Development state and administrative areas with the participation of women leaders from the government institutions, civil society, media, private sector and faith-based leaders. At the community level, women’s participation in peacebuilding and implementation of the R-ARCSS has been also increased. For example, in 2021 62 women occupied leadership positions in 10 villages in Maridi Country whereas the women in leadership positions in 2020 were none. While only 7 out of 65 leadership positions were appointed to women at the county level in Awerial County in 2020, the number went up to 26 women in leadership positions in 2021. UN Women contributed to these results by supporting women at all levels to spearhead advocacy for increasing female representations in the government’s key roles and pushing for the 35% affirmative action as laid out in the R-ARCSS. Women’s participation in decision making and peacebuilding will help reduce the damaging effects of conflicts as the special needs of women and girls during the peacebuilding post-conflict reconstruction are more considered and addressed.
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