Region:Asia PacificCurrent UN Women Plan Period Afghanisthan:2018-2022
World Bank Income Classification:Low IncomeThe World Bank classifies economies for analytical purposes into four income groups: low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high income. For this purpose it uses gross national income (GNI) per capita data in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the World Bank Atlas method, which is applied to smooth exchange rate fluctuations.Least Developed Country:YesSince 1971, the United Nations has recognized LDCs as a category of States that are deemed highly disadvantaged in their development process, for structural, historical and also geographical reasons. Three criteria are used: per capita income, human assets, and economic vulnerability.Gender Inequality Index:0.575GII is a composite metric of gender inequality using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. A low GII value indicates low inequality between women and men, and vice-versa.Gender Development Index:0.723GDI measures gender inequalities in achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: health, education, and command over economic resources.
Population:209,497,025Source of population data: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2022). World Population Prospects: The 2022 RevisionMale:19,976,265 (9.5%)Female:189,520,760 (90.5%)
Key national institutions are implementing international obligations and national commitments on gender equality and women’s empowerment in policy and budgeting processes, and are accountable for results, including through the coordination mandate of the country office.
States capacities to implement international obligations and national commitments on GEWE in integrated manner strengthened during the reporting period through access to a new tool , ‘Harmonised approach for International commitments on GEWE and Human Rights’. UN Women provided support in response to Government’s increased recognition of the need to work differently to effectively address recommendations in the concluding observations of the Treaty Bodies. The innovative tools on ‘Harmonised approach’ integrate recommendations from 11 Treaty bodies such as, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW -2015, 2021), Universal Periodic Review (UPR -2015, 2020 ), Committee Against Torture (CAT – 2021), Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC - 2014), Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW - 2015), Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR -2015), Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD - 2018), Committee on Human Rights (CCPR - 2014), Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP -2020), UN Population Fund, World Population Report (2020), Special Rapporteurs Recommendations (on everyone's right to access high standards of physical and mental health 2019, child trafficking, child prostitution and pornography 2013). This tool has been devised as an informational platform (grouped in line with 12 thematic areas of the Beijing Platform for Action and against relevant SDGs indicators).
The members of the Inter-Ministerial Working Group noted the innovativeness and practical applicability of this tool, which breaks down institutional and policy silos, enables synergistic actions, facilitates identification of unintended negative consequences, and effectively manages unavoidable trade-offs across the respective line ministries and agencies. Moreover, group members recognised that, since the Harmonised Matrix displays recommendations over the last 2-3 reporting periods, it is possible to explicitly observe the repetitive nature of some recommendations. For example CEDAW concluding observations for the years 2015 and 2020 repeatedly urge the Government ‘to adopt comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation which prohibits discrimination against women on all grounds’. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the recommendations helped to identify recurring, related and cross-referenced recommendations across all 11 Treaty Bodies. To date the Matrix has been used in a pilot mode to inform the Government’s CEDAW response Action Plan.
During the reporting period, the Kyrgyz Parliament, in its new convocation, created a new Council on Women and Children Rights and Gender Equality. This Council replaced the previous Council on Prevention of Domestic Violence, one of four major advisory councils under the Speaker of the Parliament. The Council, alongside civil society experts organized into three thematic groups, developed a strategy and action plan. The Council requested UN Women co-create the Council’s development strategy and action plan, in light of the Council’s expanded portfolio. UN Women set up the three expert groups along 3 thematic areas of the council (gender equality, women’s rights and children rights) to co-design and launch the process. The expert groups applied systems thinking as a mental model to see the interconnections among structures, behaviours, and relationships. Under facilitation of UN Women, the expanded expert groups, representing different CSOs, identified underlying causes and uncovered opportunities for creating positive change. Systems approaches to analysis provided a solid basis for broader strategic discussions with women MPs, their advisors, and CSOs regarding leverage points for change, potential areas for intervention, and technical and adaptive solutions. Further strategic conversations with members of the Council and a core expert group helped to refine the strategic priorities, including the role of the Parliament in brokering and initiating dialogue between the Government and CSOs on GEWE, to create a shared vision on GEWE within the broader context of sustainable country development.
Women and men, especially youth, value social norms supporting gender equality and women’s empowerment at individual and community levels
During the reporting period, progress towards this outcome was significant compared to baseline data, which revealed deeply rooted discriminatory practices, attitudes, and gender stereotypes in target communities (ethnographic review in 2020). According to monitoring findings:
After GALS, communities started to openly discuss the issues of violence, where before it was largely silenced as a strictly family matter.
Families have begun to reflect on a possible reassessment of family values, a renewed sense of love for art, sports, and getting used to starting the day with positivity, saying polite and loving words to each other.
70% of the oblast champions have revised their attitudes towards the role of women and men in the family, with greater support for equal sharing of responsibilities and consideration of everyone's role. Families started to think about the need for a fair approach to child-rearing, regardless of the gender of the child, as well as rejecting ideas about division of work into male and female work.
30% of men are involved in education and upbringing process. Fathers started to take time for their children and not only for education, but also for their childcare (understanding their role in children's upbringing and that this is not only the duty of a mother to care for their children);
40% of fathers have improved communication with their families. They started to discuss family matters together, to value everyone's contribution, to be open to dialogue, and to openly discuss what matters to other family members. This improved a number of relationships (relationships: husband-wife, parents-children, father-daughter, mother-in-law-kin, among friends, among colleagues, and among neighbours).
The needs of each family member are recognized and their interests are taken into account in the decision-making process. Champions have started to take more account of children's interests and needs, to prioritize children's development costs (both for male and female children) ). Champions have started to discuss the need to plan and distribute family budget and have started their own family business;
Champions recognise that women can earn as much as men and can choose their professional activity.
UN Women made significant contributions to these results by upscaling and replicating the Gender Action Learning (GALS) methodology, which was successfully tested through previous UN Women work on changing social norms and behavior. The work on GALS was done by the IP Education for Community Development (ECD).
Success story and quotes as evidence of the transformation
Changing social norms to end violence against women and girls in Kyrgyzstan (Success story was published on SI global website https://eca.unwomen.org/en/stories/feature-story/2022/12/changing-social-norms-to-end-violence-against-women-and-girls-in-kyrgyzstan
Database of GALS participants by levels and pilot villages can be found here
KGZ_D_188.8.131.52_ECD progress report_Jun-Sep2022_Russian
KGZ_D_184.108.40.206_ECD progress report_Oct-Dec2022_Russian
Service providers are better able to prevent VAWG and deliver essential services to victims and survivors of violence
The work under this outcome has slowed due to the delays in the adoption of the amendments to the Law on protection and safeguarding from domestic violence. The Draft Law has been suspended and returned for additional public consultations and subsequent parliamentarian hearings. This delayed the approval of the Essential Service Package. This package will change in response to changes in the Draft Law, ideally such that respective amendments are integrated into SGBV services SOPs and strengthen services in a survivor-centric manner. Moreover, during the reporting period UN Women held consultations with one of the districts of Chui province to test SOPs from a survivor-centric approach perspective, based on algorithms earlier developed by an expert team. Within 7 months of 2022 - 167 cases on VAW were sent to court which is significant increase compare to 48 cases within the whole year of 2021. 449 women VAW survivors received medical support in First Aid clinics, 1397 women received medical support in hospitals, and 1901 women received medical forensic support after the registration of VAW cases.
In 2022, 25 representatives: Ombudsperson on Children’s rights under the office of the President of Kyrgyz Republic, Deputy Plenipotentiary Representatives of the President of the Kyrgyz Republic in the regions, vice-mayors of Bishkek and Osh cities on social issues, representatives of ministries and crisis centers in the regions learned to apply innovative approaches to bring both government and CSO actors to discuss and understand the complexity of sexual and gender-based violence against girls (according to the statistics for 2022 there is observed growing tendency of violence against girls and minors) to come to a shared understanding of entry points for prevention and response. Moreover, they discussed the possibility of uniting efforts to develop a roadmap for the prevention and response to violence against girls, linked to the National Strategy and Action Plan to achieve gender equality in the Kyrgyz Republic.
UN Women facilitated the sessions by applying innovative tools with a specific focus on survivor/human centric approach.
Enhanced coordination, coherence and accountability of the UN system for commitments to gender equality and women’s empowerment
In 2022 the UNCT have continued an intensive dynamics of application of innovative methods for ensuring UN coherence and accountability for acceleration of GEWE results within the ongoing UNSDCF process, , resulted in:
A gender analysis has been integrated throughout all chapters of the Common Country Analysis (CCA) report, substantiated by sex-disaggregated data and evidence on the status of gender equality and women and girls’ rights in the country. The analysis contains information on specific issues related to gender equality and women’s rights which is integrated into the chapters on economic, political, social, environmental, and demographic context, and the chapters on peace and conflict analysis, commitments under international norms and standards. The chapters on multidimensional risk analysis and on strategic entry points of UN programing contain sub-chapters specifically devoted to gender equality and women’s rights considerations. The updated CCA report in 2022 reconfirmed the priorities defined in the 2021 report. All gender specific data and information remain valid. The CCA report reiterates the importance of “a strategic entry point, focusing on children, youth and women in the context of promoting the respect, protection and fulfillment of human rights [..] manifested across multiple sectors: jobs creation and skills training, gender equality in educational access and employment, improved and more accessible health services for girls and young women, expanded access to financial services, and availability of accessible avenues for meaningful and effective participation in public consensus-building and decision-making processes”. The text of the report was further strengthened by the following statement: “[W]hile special measures and [a] quota system is an important prerequisite for ensuring increased representation of women in elected bodies, more work is needed to address pervasive negative public perception regarding women in politics. Measures to create new positive norms and attitudes towards women’s leadership require attention towards empowering women and strengthening their ability to engage with their rights to enter politics and participate in decision-making, and also towards facilitating public discourse on how gains in women’s equal representation bring benefit towards the development of society as a whole”.
The 2022 CCA report was updated with references to key recommendations made by the CEDAW committee on “measures to ensure the full and equal participation of women in political and public life, including in executive, judicial and legislative bodies at the national, regional and local levels, particularly in decision-making positions”; and by UN Human Rights Committee recommending Kyrgyzstan ”to establish a mechanism to monitor the implementation of temporary special measures and assess their impact on achieving substantive equality between women and men”.
The updated CCA report 2022 reconfirmed the relevance of the four areas of priority concerns identified in the 2021 CCA report, including the need to work on addressing “exclusion and inequalities, defined to include multiple and intersecting discriminations, deprivations and injustices. These are key development challenges facing the country in its journey to achieving its national development priorities and realization of the 2030 Agenda”.
In addition to information and evidence collected through desk review of studies and reports, the CCA analysis has been done including the use of 38 indicators, 19 of which are disaggregated by sex.
UNCT members have continued application of innovative tools such as adaptive leadership and system thinking resulted in then finalization of the Theory of Change of the new UNSDCF 2023 – 2027, signed by the UN and the Kyrgyz Government in June 2022, includes the promotion of effective governance rooted in democracy, gender equality and human rights principles. All four UNSDCF outcomes in Kyrgyzstan contain elements of gender equality principles as a prerequisite for achievement of intended changes by targeting equitable access and applying gender transformative approaches. Gender dimensions of the outcomes have been further specified in the definitions of results in the respective outputs.
Increased engagement of partners in support of UN-Women’s mandate
In 2022, the UN team – through the SI program – provided an extensive support to the Parliamentary Council on Women and Children Rights and Gender Equality, which was established in March 2022 as a consultative advisory body under the Parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic. The Council aims to contribute to the improvement of the legislative base for the promotion of GEWE. This Council has replaced the previous Council on Protection from Gender-Based Violence set up under the previous parliamentary convocation. The key distinction is that the new Council provides a platform for civil society engagement. Alongside the support to build the organizational structure of the council, the UN team supports women members of parliament’s efforts to conduct open consultations with key stakeholders such as survivors of gender-based violence, law enforcement, lawyers, the judiciary, healthcare personnel, and civil society organizations that work with survivors of gender-based violence, and national statistics offices, to collect views on the effectiveness of existing measures and specific areas of legislative weaknesses.
In April-May 2022, the UN team (UNDP, UN Women, UNFPA, OHCHR, UNICEF) conducted a series of trainings to the members of parliament as an orientation training on parliamentarism, including a special session on the gender equality concept and principles in law making.
In 2022, the UN support to the legal inventory process was continued (over 360 laws have been reviewed). Currently, the Council members initiated amendments to the following laws: “On safeguarding and protection from domestic violence”, Criminal Code, Code on Criminal Procedure and Code of Contraventions, Labor Code (to introduce sexual harassment definition and provisions).
In 2022, the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, led by the Vice-chair of the cabinet, planned to continue an initiative on the launch of the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-based Violence. Last year, on 25 November, the campaign was launched in the Batken province together with women from Batken and Working Group members of the CEDAW Delegation that presented the country’s periodic report during the 80th CEDAW session in November 2021.
In 2022, UN Women has introduced the Harmonized Approach to support the government partners in addressing key recommendations and concluding observations of Treaty Bodies on human rights and elimination of VAWG. This will help to streamline multi-sectoral efforts of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic in the adoption of measures to strengthen services for survivors of violence during the global crisis, and the integration of special measures on prevention and response to VAWG into national plans.
UN Team under the SI program have jointly progressed the work on EVAWG, each working in its comparative area, but collectively contributing to changes, including on: GEWE policy making by support the adoption of the Gender Equality Strategy-2030 and its National Action Plan (led by UN Women); making inventory, analysis of bylaws following adoption of new CC, CPC, development of practical guide and presentation of the guide to the MIA Jointly with GPO, MIA with the focus on violence against children(UNICEF); extending support to Probation Department in piloting correctional programs for violence perpetrators in communities (UNODC); support in the establishment of Free Legal Aid Hotline, including consultations for SGBV survivors in line with the new SGLA law, and promotion of pro-bono culture among lawyers and other legal aid CSOs/associations through consultations, dialogue platforms and media outreach components, including Women's Access to Justice Research (UNDP); providing support to the Ministry of labor, social protection and migration to roll out training package to strengthen the quality and delivery of services for women and girls with disabilities (UNFPA).
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