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Region:Asia Pacific Current UN Women Plan Period Afghanisthan:2018-2022
i-icon World Bank Income Classification:Low Income The World Bank classifies economies for analytical purposes into four income groups: low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high income. For this purpose it uses gross national income (GNI) per capita data in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the World Bank Atlas method, which is applied to smooth exchange rate fluctuations. i-icon Least Developed Country:Yes Since 1971, the United Nations has recognized LDCs as a category of States that are deemed highly disadvantaged in their development process, for structural, historical and also geographical reasons. Three criteria are used: per capita income, human assets, and economic vulnerability. i-icon Gender Inequality Index:0.575 GII is a composite metric of gender inequality using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. A low GII value indicates low inequality between women and men, and vice-versa. i-icon Gender Development Index:0.723 GDI measures gender inequalities in achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: health, education, and command over economic resources.
i-icon Population:209,497,025 Source of population data: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2022). World Population Prospects: The 2022 Revision Male:19,976,265 (9.5%) Female:189,520,760 (90.5%)
Map Summary

outcome XM-DAC-41146-KHM_D_3.1

Cambodia has an enabling environment to better prevent, respond and prosecute all forms of gender-based violence [aligns to UN Women SP 2018-2021 Output 11]

During the reporting year, some progress has been observed toward improving the enabling environment to prevent, respond to and prosecute all forms of gender-based violence. A priority has been initiating toward the review of the Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence and Protection of Victims (DV law) and improvement in its current implementation were prioritized in the National Action Plan to Prevent Violence against Women (NAPVAW). A key priority is ensuring that the law and its implementation address the needs of marginalised groups or groups with challenges accessing services, such as women migrant workers, LGBTIQ women, ethnic minorities, women with disabilities, older women, and others marginalised by occupation. The planned actions stated in NAPVAW to review the DV Law are in line with the CEDAW Concluding Observation (CEDAW COB) 9a, 9b related to improvement of the legislative framework and 25 b to undertake a comprehensive review of the DV law and amends its provisions to define, prohibit and criminalise all forms of gender-based violence, including domestic violence and marital rape, to facilitate the process of obtaining protection orders and to ensure that victims/survivors of domestic violence have access to effective remedies and that perpetrators are held accountable. Despite these declarations of intent, there is not yet a clear pathway forward on how to reform and/or amend the DV law. Therefore, the Ministry of Women's Affairs as the secretariat of the Technical Working Group on Gender-Gender Based Violence is coordinating the process to develop the roadmap for reforming the DV law. UN Women is significantly contributing to the development of the roadmap for reforming the DV law by providing technical expertise to the Ministry of Women's Affairs in coordinating and facilitating consultations between key line ministries. In addition, UN Women is ensuring there is engagement from Civil Society Organisations working on DV law implementation in drafting and finalising the roadmap. Key discussions were held between the Ministry of Women's Affairs and UN Women including the technical consultants to identify the priority actions. It was agreed to have a closed-door meeting to initiate a discussion on critical action steps toward the DV law review/reform between key stakeholders from the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Women's Affairs, Bar Association of Kingdom of Cambodia, UN Women, UNOHCHR, and two Civil Organisations, Cambodia League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO) and NGO CEDAW. The DV Law Reform Roadmap aims to ensure a participatory approach for consult with all stakeholders, especially maginalised groups and survivors in the law reform process. The roadmap is expected to be completed by quarter 1 of 2023.
outcome XM-DAC-41146-KHM_D_3.2

Women, girls and LGBTIQ persons who experience violence are empowered to use available, accessible and quality essential services and recover from violence. [UN Women SP 2018-2021 Output 11]

During the reporting year, UN Women made significant achievements for this outcome. Women migrant returnees, potential women migrant workers and their family members now have greater access to reliable information related to migration that is relevant, more accessible, and more convenient through the My Journey Mobile App which has been downloaded onto 1,799 devices. In addition, with UN Women's support community led women's networks in target areas have demonstrated an increase in confidence and soft skills (i.e., community mobilisation, organisation and facilitation of community awareness raising events and communication for positive interaction) that are seen as an asset to sustain some of the network activities and grassroot movement for women supporting women migrant workers. According to narrative progress reports, participants attending the community women led network activities, awareness campaign and using My Journey Mobile App have improved knowledge on risks to violence against women and its consequences, service information, safe migration practices, contributions of women migrant workers for family livelihoods and the communities, the positive migration experiences of women, and COVID-19 risk mitigation as well. They would be able to tell where and how to seek for help if gender-based violence reported, key documents needed for working overseas and key measures for preventing COVID-19 infection. Women also have improved access to information, referral to essential services and COVID-19 life-saving information as well as resources. UN Women's support to the Helplines of the Ministry of Women's (MoWA) and the Child Helpline Cambodia (CHC) has contributed to improve access to services for women survivors, including women migrant workers. In 2022, 150 out of 152 cases reported via the MoWA and CHC Helpline are gender-based violence (GBV). Ten out of GBV reported cases are related to women migrant workers. This indicates helplines are relevant and accessible services that has encouraged women and their family members report and seek for services. MOWA has also recognised UN Women's support to strengthening the capacity of government service providers and upgrading helplines which has contributed to enhancing delivering coordinated quality services for ending violence against women migrant workers. UN Women made strong progress in supporting the Ministry of Women's Affairs to strengthen the coordination and functioning of multi-sectoral gender-based violence coordination groups both at the national and sub-national levels. At the national level, regular meeting of Technical Working Group on Gender-Gender Based Violence (TWGG-GBV) have maintained. This serves as a significant national platform to monitor and follow up the implementation of the 3rd National Action Plan to Prevent Violence against Women (NAPVAW) by line ministries and Civil Society Organisation members. UN Women has collaborated with UNFPA contributed significantly to strengthening the capacity of Forensic Committees for Sexual Violence on the updated Forensic Medicine Protocol/Form on sexual violence from three target provinces of UN Women and eight target provinces of UNFPA. Strengthened national coordination together with joint work between UN Women and UNFPA seems to contribute to strengthening coordinated services. As such, from January to June 2022, 218 rape cases were reported to health services and 133 forensic examinations for rape/sexual violence cases were conducted and reports sent to the courts. At the sub-national levels, nine Gender Based Violence Working Groups were strengthened through quality meetings to follow up and monitor reported GBV cases in UN Women's target provinces. It was observed that there is an increase of collaborative coordination among chairs, secretariats, and members of the GBV Working Groups on the GBV case reporting. There was a request to the Ministry of Women's Affairs to provide a simplified reporting template for the members to record the case for quarterly reporting. The GBV Working Group meeting a space for each member to share challenges and seek alternative solutions from their line supervision at the provincial and district levels in dealing cases that were viewed as beyond their capacity or roles. Another significant progress made during this reporting year is the kick- off for the final evaluation of the 3rd NAPVAW. UN Women has made strong progress in providing technical expertise for the Ministry of Women's Affairs to conduct the evaluation of the 3rd National Action Plan to Prevent Violence against Women. The purpose of the evaluation was to collect information and evidence from key stakeholders including women survivors and marginalized groups of women, CSOs, development partners, and government agencies on the successes and challenges when implementing the 3rd NAPVAW against its targets and strategies in the results framework, and to provide recommendations for the 4th NAPVAW. UN Women has ensured that participatory approaches are applied, and the evaluation follows UN Women's evaluation policy and principles. By December 2022, the evaluation team had met with/interviewed a total of 28 persons from 13 different organisations from December 8 to 27 including team members from The Australia-Cambodia Cooperation for Equitable Sustainable Services (ACCESS), UNFPA, Bar Association of Kingdom of Cambodia (AKC) and Expert on Gender Based Violence, and 9 relevant Non-Governmental Organisations. The consultant team plans to conduct the interviews with national and sub-national stakeholders in January and the preliminary findings will be consolidated in the next quarter. Based on results observed above, the original strategy and Theory of Change for this outcome remain strongly applicable. The joint work between UN Women and UNFPA to strengthen forensic service with gender lens is seen as an effective approach in delivering minimum services for survivors of gender-based violence. Further, national, and sub-national coordination has continued to play a significant role to bring relevant line ministries to be accountable for the implementation of the National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women (NAPVAW). Community women led networks are the important actors to expand access to information and provide immediate support for their members. At the same time, the networks seem to sustain when new skills and knowledge obtained from UN Women's support are utilised for information dissemination and grassroot advocacy.
outcome XM-DAC-41146-KHM_D_4.1

SN Outcome 4: National and sub-national responses to climate change and Disaster Risk Reduction incorporate and address the priorities and needs of all women in Cambodia.

In this reporting year, there has been positive results observed for the outcome. The priorities and needs of women in Cambodia can be better addressed in climate change (CC) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) due to the increased capacity of government and civil society gained through the development of tools, guidance and training. Through strategic partnerships with the Ministry of Women's Affairs (MOWA) and National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM), the government has more tools/guidelines and capacity in mainstreaming gender into CC actions and DRR including the Guidelines for Mainstreaming Gender in Inclusive Disaster Management, and the Methodological Guidelines for Data Produces and Users for Integrating Gender in Climate Change and Disaster Related Statistics in Cambodia. With the Guidelines for Mainstreaming Gender in Inclusive Disaster Management and the complementary training package, key disaster management actors can conduct gender analysis and strategically integrate gender into their day-to-day work and master plan/program. With the guideline and the complementary training package, key disaster management actors can conduct gender analysis and strategically integrate gender into their day-to-day work and master plan/program. With the Methodological Guidelines for Data Produces and Users for Integrating Gender in Climate Change and Disaster Related Statistics in Cambodia capacity development and technical assistance have resulted in a stronger gender mainstreaming into CC and DRR such as stronger draft Cambodia country profile: Gender; environment statistics in CC and DRR. MoWA’s technical team will present final draft versions to the senior management. This has been mentioned during the reflection workshop conducted in November 2022 which was presided over by a Secretary of State (SOS) in charge of gender mainstreaming and climate change. Please find the link here: UN Women has significantly contributed to the implementation of the approved Guideline for Mainstreaming Gender in Inclusive Disaster Management. This includes provision of technical and financial assistance to development of Training of Trainer Manual and package through a participatory process which involves engagement of civil society organizations that are working on CC and DRR. The support also has contributed to build trust with the Gender Mainstreaming Action Group at National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM). UN Women has contributed to the capacity development provided to the MoWA has enabled more meaningful engagement in the use of gender statistics, particularly sex, age and diversity disaggregated data in the context of CC and DRR actions. MOWA’s technical team responsible for gender mainstreaming in CC and DRR officials are able to review the statistical yearbook to identify the gaps in statistics and lack of gender statistics in the related national statistics. It is commonly agreed that there is a need for further sex, age and disability disaggregated data in the commune data based and to focus on the human aspect in the agricultural survey which is highly beneficial to CC actions. MOWA has strategically identified the entry points and key actors to improve gender statistical recording and analysis in the Cambodia national statistical system. These include more advocacy work with technical statistics groups within the concerned sectors to discuss needed CC and DRR indicators that would also reflect on gender issues. Through strategic partnership, UN Women is able to expand connections with the Ministry of Mine and Energy and develop more internal understanding on gender work in the sector. UN Women ensures space for women living with HIV and residing in rural areas, youth, especially young women and women networks at the grassroot to bring their lived experience to be shared with the public in learning events, community dialogues and awareness raising events. Stories of struggle and resilience as well as the needs among women living with HIV were shared with local authorities to influence the commune development plan and their stories were documented and have been heard by the community for promoting better support. At the same time, the young women's groups are now equipped with gender analysis skills and tools to enable their critical analysis of gender issues happening around them and can apply these skills in the context of climate change. Members of the Women’s Champion Network supported by UN Women partners continue to use their voice in public space including CSOs workshops and the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction which was held in Bali in 2022. Please find the link here: WIN DRR Leadership Awards 2021: Rising Star award - Finalists | PreventionWeb
outcome XM-DAC-41146-KHM_D_6.1

The RGC resources, coordinates and transparently monitors implementation of international commitments to GE&WE, in consultation with rights holders including Young women and LGBTIQ persons.

Significant progress and achievements have been observed for this outcome. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) via the Cambodia National Council for Women (CNCW) has endorsed an action plan for implementing and monitoring CEDAW Concluding Observation (CEDAW COB) that was supported by UN Women Cambodia in March 2022. The action plan has dual purposes. The action plan is used as a monitoring tool to track progress and/or change in response to the CEDAW COB, while on the other hand the plan provides high level guidance for the line ministry members to focus their actions for advancing gender equality and women's empowerment. As a result, in 2022 the CEDAW COB follow-up report was submitted by the RGC which demonstrates the government's accountability in engaging with the CEDAW monitoring process. The report formulation process enables the most relevant line ministries (Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Women Affairs) members to assess the progress made on recommendations contained in paragraphs 19, 25 (b) and 47 (d) and identify forward looking measures to accelerate the implementation. National budget allocated for legal aid via he Cambodia National Council for Women's (CNCW) secretariat supporting gender-based violence (GBV) survivors remains as a priority to implement. There is a three-year Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between CNCW and the Bar Association of Kingdom of Cambodia (2021-2023) being implemented despite that RGC has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Further, the MOU is also contributing to strengthening the legal aid referral mechanisms between social and legal services which is likely to motivate GBV survivors to report and seek services. It is also reported that the MOU has contributed to enhancing knowledge of attorneys in supporting women survivors through applying a gender lens and rights-based and survivor-centred principles. The national budget has been used to monitor the Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment (GEWE) measures at both national and sub-national levels which has been led by senior women and men leaders of CNCW. In line with CEDAW COB, CNCW’s leaders conducted a sub-national monitoring visits to understand the current situation of women in prisons, access to GBV services and women leadership and participation in public life. The stakeholder meeting conducted during the visit was also open to participation of civil society representatives to share their observations as well as experience. For example, the provincial stakeholder meeting in Modulkiri Province (situated on the northern part of the country and there are ethnic minority communities) was co-conducted by provincial governor and CNCW’s leaders attended by nine civil society organisations (CSO) where the government legal aid for GBV was introduced and CNCW leaders sought for collaboration related to case referral. Engaging CSOs in the CEDAW sub-national monitoring visit has demonstrated positive actions of the government in recognition of the important role of CSOs in implementing and monitoring CEDAW. There is a greater national trend to accept LGBTIQ persons in Cambodia society. For example, local authorities in some communities fully support traditional marriage, recognizing the challenge that there is no law to legalise same sex couples. Further, more and more state actors acknowledge that diversity in sexual orientation and gender diversity exist in human kind and LGBTIQ persons/communities are valuable human resources for Cambodia society. However Cambodia does not have neither anti-discrimination law nor policy to recognize gender identity and legal marriage. LGBTIQ persons/communities have been prioritized as one among vulnerable populations in the third National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women 2019-2023, yet both prevention and response have adequately not reflected the experiences of LGBTIQ. Victim blaming has been a subject of debate and civil societies, including urban young women, media key influencers and gender advocates have been supporting campaigning for changing the narrative which focus on reinforcing justice for women, women body autonomy and women's rights. Minister of Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA) has quoted in Thmey Thmey: Cambodianess article: Women victims of rape or sexual harassment tend to be blamed if they wear sexy clothes while offenders are found not guilty; dated on September 22, 2022. For full article, please find the link here: UN Women has contributed significantly to above-mentioned results. These include provision of technical assistance, policy advice and support for some consultations and publication for finalizing the CEDAW COB follow-up report as well as CEDAW monitoring. The support given has been appreciated by the Secretary General and Minister of Women's Affairs who is the chair of CNCW. Furthermore, through engagement with CNCW CEDAW monitoring, UN Women can strengthen its strategic alliance with the chairwomen and women leaders of gender mainstreaming action groups of the Ministry of Economic and Finance for advocating on gender budgets. In addition, UN Women continues to support movement building of young gender advocates to address discrimination and violence against women and LGBTIQ persons. These include capacity building to utilize social media and storytelling to public awareness campaigns, conducting dialogues and strengthening intergenerational networks building through transformative leadership programme. At the same time, UN Women Cambodia has engaged actively with UNCT under the coordination of Resident Coordinator to continue advocacy actions on Gender Based Violence, rights of LGBTIQ persons and women's status and participation in public life. This includes providing gender analysis, key talking points reflecting critical gender issues in Cambodia for dialogues with state agents and civil societies. Through the UNCT advocacy campaign, UN Women mandates, especially related to normative support, have been introduced to key state actors such as the Ministry of Interior, National Police, National Peace Center, and the Ministry of Justice. It has been demonstrated that the original approaches and theory of change are relevant and effective in advancing GEWE. However, irreversible changes are likely to consume time and resources which potentially cause long delays in action related to legislation formulation or amendment and social norm change. The programme should consistently observe sensitivities particularly with regards to movement and coalition building. Maintaining the current outcome, while more progress needs to be made along with joint advocacy campaigns need to be continued for 2023. This could be accelerated via UN Coordination system-UNCT, UNGTG, and Human Right Taskforce. Further, risk assessments that may affect GEWE need to be updated as Cambodia will have a national election in July, 2023.
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References to Kosovo shall be understood to be in the context of United Nations Security Council resolution 1244 (1999).
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