Region:Asia Pacific Current UN Women Plan Period Afghanisthan:2018-2022
World Bank Income Classification:Low Income The World Bank classifies economies for analytical purposes into four income groups: low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high income. For this purpose it uses gross national income (GNI) per capita data in U.S. dollars, converted from local currency using the World Bank Atlas method, which is applied to smooth exchange rate fluctuations. Least Developed Country:Yes Since 1971, the United Nations has recognized LDCs as a category of States that are deemed highly disadvantaged in their development process, for structural, historical and also geographical reasons. Three criteria are used: per capita income, human assets, and economic vulnerability. Gender Inequality Index:0.575 GII is a composite metric of gender inequality using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. A low GII value indicates low inequality between women and men, and vice-versa. Gender Development Index:0.723 GDI measures gender inequalities in achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: health, education, and command over economic resources.
Population:209,497,025 Source of population data: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2022). World Population Prospects: The 2022 Revision Male:19,976,265 (9.5%) Female:189,520,760 (90.5%)
Cambodia has an enabling environment to better prevent, respond and prosecute all forms of gender-based violence [aligns to UN Women SP 2018-2021 Output 11]The outcome was not fully achieved in 2021, partly as a result of the continuing impact of successive waves of COVID-19 and the measures in place to respond to the pandemic. However, there was progress towards improvements in the enabling environment to prevent, respond to and prosecute GBV in Cambodia. In particular Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MOWA) technical capacity and leadership in coordinating the implementation of the 3rd National Action Plan to Prevent Violence against Women (NAPVAWIII) have been significantly improved. UN Women has continued to provide technical advisory support to MOWA to coordinate the Technical Working Group on Gender-Gender Based Violence (TWGG-GBV) which consists of 17 line ministries, 26 CSOs, four development partners, and three UN agencies. UN Women co-chairs this group which is the key coordination mechanism for GBV prevention and response in Cambodia as well as provides technical inputs to support the development of key tools needed for a coordinated and quality response to GBV. A key example is that UN Women has contributed to the development of the Annual Operational Plan (AOP) format, a simplified tool for monitoring the implementation of the 3rd NAPVAW by TWGG-GBV line ministries and members including resource mobilisation. This is an important tool to facilitate and coordinate the multi-sectoral engagement that is needed to create an enabling environment to better respond to the needs of survivors. With an increase in capacity, MOWA has continued to provide technical support to TWGG-GBV members to develop their AOPs. During this reporting period, 15 AOPs have been developed by 11-line ministries, 3 CSOS, and the Bar Association of the Kingdom of Cambodia. From the initial analysis, 34 strategic priorities were made with the majority focusing on Prevention (73%), followed by Legal Protection and Multi-Sectoral Services (21%), and Laws and Policies and Monitoring and Evaluation (3% each). At the same time, key gaps have been identified and presented to the TWGG-GBV members during the 25th TWGG-GBV meetings on the 23rd of November 2021. The gaps identified include still significant numbers of TWGG-GBV members that have not completed AOPs. This results in a lack of documentation of many of the activities that have occurred and represent significant work toward the NAPVAW implementation. As a result of the lack of AOPs from many organizations, the focus on marginalised and at-risk groups' access to services is not documented adequately. For example, despite the prioritization of women migrant workers in the third NAPVAW implementation, the AOPs from relevant members of TWGG-GBV have not highlighted the key actions to strengthen labour migration governance and coordinated service responses, and prevention of violence against women migrant workers. Further, both prevention and responses for women in ethnic/indigenous communities or women with disabilities also have not been adequately addressed in the AOPs. The AOPs have significant details about the work that TWGG-GBV members are doing. However, some of the activities or actions are not NAPVAW priorities but the planned activities of the line ministry and the geographic focus of work are not detailed. In addition, UN Women has contributed to conducting the legal review of the Law on the Prevention of Violence and the Protection of Women (DV Law) to be able to provide relevant and contextual policy advice to MOWA for addressing the discrimination, stereotyping of the law substances when MOWA develop a roadmap for DV law reform. The desk review of good practices in VAW legal frameworks was conducted to identify good practices, and the DV Law analysis was initiated. A preliminary review report analysing the DV Law in the context of relevant international human rights principles and standards from the United Nations (UN), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been completed. With UN Women's coordination, six separate consultations were conducted via Zoom with two UN agencies (UNFPA and OHCHR), three CSOs (Women Peace Makers, Legal Aid of Cambodia, and NGOs CEDAW), and the Ministry of Women's Affairs (MoWA). The consultations have provided a deeper understanding of the previous work and the progress on DV law implementation in the DV law review process. UN Women will be working with MoWA on a Roadmap for Legal Reform that will be initiated in 2022. The full draft analysis report of the DV Law Review will be provided by the international consultant in the 1st quarter of 2022.
SN Outcome 4: National and sub-national responses to climate change and Disaster Risk Reduction incorporate and address the priorities and needs of all women in Cambodia.During the reporting period, gender-responsive inputs were provided to the drafted policy and gender mainstreaming plan. Gender mainstreaming tools and reports were developed to promote gender-responsive climate change action and disaster management which emphasized the inclusion of women’s voices, needs, and gender inequality issues. UN Women Cambodia provided technical inputs to the draft Roadmap for Sustainable Consumption and Production in Cambodia 2021-2035 which emphasises not only sustainable integrity but also encourages equality and inclusiveness. In collaboration with UNEP, UN Women Cambodia supported the Ministry of Mine and Energy by providing gender-responsive input for strategy five (climate change) in the gender mainstreaming strategy which will be launched in 2022. Moreover, with financial support and technical advisory inputs from UN Women Cambodia, the Guideline to Mainstream Gender into Inclusive Disaster Management was produced and launched for public use. The guideline serves as a practical tool for gender mainstreaming in disaster management work, primarily for the National Committee on Disaster Management. The National Committee of Disaster Management secretariat shows commitment to further make use of the guideline and promote gender-responsive and inclusiveness in disaster management works as evidenced in the closing remark by the Vice Chairperson of the National Committee for Disaster Management during the launching event of the guideline on November 25th, 2021. He stated that the guidelines are seen as a potential tool to improve the work on disaster management for the Royal Government of Cambodia and advocated for resource mobilization and integration of gender issues in disaster management. The guidelines can potentially be used nationwide and will be rolled out in the following years. UN Women, together with UNEP and the Cambodia Development Resource Institute (CDRI), prepared the “State of Gender Equality and Climate Change” report and the Brief for policymakers focusing on agriculture, energy, forestry, and rural development. The assessment report contributes to the tracking of gender mainstreaming progress in climate change prioritized and related sectors. The assessment was shared with sectoral ministries responsible for the following portfolios: women's affairs, environment, rural development, mines and energy, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, decentralized development, statistics, and disaster management as well as civil society organizations. The Women Champion Network (WCN) engaged in various climate change action and policy influence dialogues to represent women's voices and echo women's needs. UN Women Cambodia in partnership with ActionAid International Cambodia continues to support the establishment of WCN and further effective engagement with local policy dialogues as well as a regional platform to showcase women's leadership in CC and DRR issues at the local level. During the period, WCN with local CSOs' support became one of the actors in awareness raising around COVID-19 along with disaster risk reduction by installing billboards in the community to raise awareness on COVID-19 protection and mitigate action for climate change. They also coordinated with the local authority to install drainage systems to prevent flooding, rehabilitate canals, and established a mangrove nursery in KohKong province.
Women, girls and LGBTIQ persons who experience violence are empowered to use available, accessible and quality essential services and recover from violence. [UN Women SP 2018-2021 Output 11]This outcome has not been fully achieved in 2021 however, progress has been made. In particular, the capacity of nine networks of women migrant workers has been strengthened remarkably, contributing to mitigating risks of unsafe migration and to gaining access to services, including VAW services. Networks enable women migrant workers and their family members to learn from each other, and collectively analyse information that potentially causes unsafe migration for community members utilising skills and knowledge gained from participating in UN Women’s programmes to understand the risks of unsafe migration. The stigma that is fueled by the notion that women migrant workers are the importers of the virus and discrimination against returning women migrant workers has been addressed through network activities such as home visits, peer-to-peer discussions, and network meetings. This is a result of the positive connections, joint efforts, and similar experiences across the networks that have educated community members and authorities about the positive contributions of migrant workers, especially women migrant workers, to society. Women including women migrant workers and LGBTIQ persons have more access to information on GBV services, labor migration, sexual reproductive, and women's rights. With UN Women's support, Interactive Voice Response (IVR) has been piloted since late 2020 to provide an alternate option to access information regarding safe migration, GBV services available, trafficking risks, rights of migrant workers, including essential information on sexual reproductive health and COVID-19 prevention. The Helpline 1280, operated by UN Women CSO partner, received between 12,000-17,000 IVR calls per quarter. In 2021 around 400 IVR calls were from women, 32 IVR calls were from LGBTIQ persons, while the rest of the IVR calls were of unknown gender. Additionally, it is reported there are 494 IVR calls that pressed to listen to information and key messages on violence against women, including women migrant workers and safe migration. Furthermore, the My Journey mobile application which specifically targets women migrant workers and their family members was launched and promoted through women networks and relevant stakeholders including CSOs, private recruitment agencies, and the government. The mobile application aims to provide accessible information conveniently to support women for safer migration. Combined campaign approaches, including mass media (radio) and social media (Facebook), have reached wider audiences exceeding the annual targets. Media campaigns cover VAW service information during the pandemic, women migrant workers' contribution to society, breaking the silence, and stopping victim blaming, safe migration, and job opportunities for returned migrant workers. 19 radio shows have been broadcasted throughout 2021. UN Women supported MOWA and the three target provincial departments of women’s affairs to have basic PPE including rapid test kits, masks, and hand sanitisers, and distribute to GBV Working Group Members both at the provincial and district levels. Key messages on helplines and VAW service responses have been printed on the bottles of hand sanitisers and distributed to the community through the GBV working group. Service directories have been developed to support service providers to identify the available services and the contact information which contribute to strengthening the referral and coordinated services. Service directories mapped the essential service available at the sub-national levels in Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, and Kampong Speu province. The development process involved the provincial department of women’s affairs from the three target provinces, MOWA, UN Women, and FHI 360 to review and update the service mapping directories developed by GBV Working Groups. UN Women also supported MoWA to develop monitoring tools to support MoWA's role in monitoring the implementation of minimum standards of essential services. A monitoring checklist was developed to ensure that relevant government service providers and CSOs are providing essential services in line with the minimum standards of essential services and that key areas for improvement are identified so they can be addressed. Even though COVID-19 has hit hard in Cambodia, the service providers continue to provide services to VAW survivors via phone helplines and online platforms.
The RGC resources, coordinates and transparently monitors implementation of international commitments to GE&WE, in consultation with rights holders including Young women and LGBTIQ persons.There are no new laws and policies that have been adapted, endorsed, or amended during this reporting period. However, the Royal Government of Cambodia through the Cambodia National Council for Women (CNCW) has a final draft of the CEDAW concluding observation action plan to monitor gender equality and women's empowerment. Final inputs, revisions, and updates were received from 23 Ministries/Institutions. It should be noted that the majority of Ministries/Institutions, especially Ministry of Women’s Affairs (MoWA), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Planning, Office of the Council of Ministers, Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning & Construction, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Ministry of Social Affairs Veterans & Youth Rehabilitation, Ministry of National Assembly-Senate Relations and Inspection, Ministry of Information, Ministry of Water Resources & Meteorology, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Economy & Finance, National AIDS Authority (NAA), Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training, Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Justice, and to a lesser extent, Ministry of Posts & Telecommunications, Ministry of Industry, Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Cult & Religious Affairs, Ministry of Culture & Fine Arts, Ministry of National Defense, and State Secretariat of Civil Aviation provided clear and substantial actions in response to most of the CEDAW Concluding Observations. There was evidence that many Ministries/Institutions referred to or directly quoted from their Strategic Plans, Action Plans, Policies, and or Gender mainstreaming Action Plans. The leadership of government partners, particularly CNCW and MOWA, has been a significant driving force to mobilise and coordinate relevant line ministries to implement CEDAW Concluding Observation and the 3rd National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women. Women's representation has significantly improved, particularly in climate change and disaster risk reduction actions at the ground level. Women Champion Network (WCN) in KohKong, Pursat, and Kompot province has continued to represent women, especially young women and rural women in various climate change and disaster risk reduction platforms at the sub-national level. This includes participating in Commune Investment Plan and 3-year rolling plan development, becoming panelists for climate change stakeholder discussion, showcasing women's leadership in climate change action at the regional level, and participating in the advocacy for forest conservation. The WCN also contributed to COVID-19 prevention by working with local authorities to install billboards and conduct community outreach to raise awareness of COVID-19 prevention measures. Discrimination against LGBTIQ persons is recognized as an abuse of human rights and has been addressed through the implementation of the National Action Plan to Prevent Violence Against Women 2019-2023 and UPR recommendations. For example, MOWA and Cambodia Human Right Committee (CHRC) have engaged positively with forums focusing on the rights of LGBTIQ persons organized by civil society organisations, activist groups, and the UN. In addition, coinciding with URP mid-term review process, a dialogue between United Nations and CHRC pressed for more measures to address legal discrimination against gender identity and same-sex marriage as well as all forms of violence against LGBTIQ persons both in the private and public sphere.
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